Impact and Gravity of Spoken Language Errors on Communication among Kimeru Learners of English as a Second Language in Kenya


  • Isaac Simiyu Juma Author
  • Prof. Author
  • Dr. Author


Speaking effectively, clearly, and confidently is the desire of any language learner. A learner would make a lot of effort to develop their vocabulary, improve their grammar and pronounce words correctly when learning a new language to achieve a native-like spoken mastery of it. Many learners only put to test their writing skills in that new language later. This means that learners rate their ability in spoken language based on their improvement levels in speaking. Therefore, speaking forms a major part of language learning. However, English as a second language (ESL) learners experience many communication challenges in their spoken language. Their speech is riddled with many errors, which hinder the intelligibility of their communication. This paper explores the ESL spoken errors among Kimeru L1 English learners by answering questions on the major types of learner errors, the possible causes of these errors, and how the errors affect communication. The gravity (local or global) of errors was assessed by the extent to which communication was affected. The causes and sources of these errors were investigated and classified as interlingual, intralingual, or unique errors.

Author Biographies

  • Prof.

    Professor, Department of Literary and Communication studies

  • Dr.

    Lecturer, Department of Literary and Communication studies



— Updated on 2023-06-26